Ladle Refining Process
Ladle Refining Furnace

Electrotherm (Ladle) Refining Furnaces

Traditional Ladle Refining Furnace (LRF) is used to de-sulphurize steel, adjust its chemical composition and raise the temperature of molten metal besides as a buffer between the melting and casting equipment. Electrotherm Refining Furnace (ERF™) is specially designed metallurgical equipment to de-phosphorize steel besides performing other processes as done by LRF. It facilitates tapping at a lower temperature, which in turn increases production and refractory life of melting equipment and reduces power consumption, thereby reducing the cost of steelmaking. ERF provides greater flexibility to steelmakers in overall plant operation. 

LRF Furnace

The concept is user-friendly and can produce high-quality structural steel, low alloy steel, and other value-added steels through the Induction Furnace – ERF route using even a very high percentage of sponge Iron / DRI as raw material.

ELDFOS™ Process

Electrotherm Refining Furnace with ELdFOS process is used for the following:

  • De-phosphization of steel by as much as 50 points
  • De-sulphurization of steel by as much as 50 points
  • Removal of metallic inclusions to make clean steel
  • Reduction of gas content by feeding Aluminium / CaSi wire to produce “killed” steel. The oxygen level of 30 ppm can be obtained

  • Homogenization of temperature and composition of  molten steel by gentle stirring
  • Degassing treatment of steel to achieve low gas content (oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen)
  • Holding of molten steel while sustaining temperature/superheating for sequencing on the CCM

Special Attributes

  • Specially designed system for removal of slag with phosphorus.
  • The use of Servo  valves and hydraulic cylinders for electrode  regulation provides very precise control ensuring electrode consumption as low as 0.3 -0.4 kg/ ton.
  • SCADA based PLC control for electrode regulation system provides impedance control, anti-resonant control, auto-deadband adjustment, etc., ensuring precise control of power and virtually constant power from the input.
  • Reduces flicker and harmonics and improves power factor up to 0.90 even without any compensation.
  • Ease in operation due to stationary electrode arms and moving ladle car, which is maintenance-free and faster for taking sequence heat.
  • High-level automation through PLC. Once the process parameters are set, ERF operates automatically with a high level of consistency.
  • The rate of superheating after stabilization of temperature in the ladle can be up to 4.50C/min.
  • SCADA based controls for gas purging system, with imported flow meter, pressure control valves and flow control valves for Argon purging minimizing the use of argon gas and achieving uniform temperature gradient through molten steel.


We convey our sincere thanks and our appreciation to M/ s Electrotherm family for the development, realization, testing, qualification and commissioning of 10 MW power supply system for our Plasma Wind Tunnel facility. We are extremely glad that M/ s Electrotherm has taken up this challenging task, when no such system was existing in the country. We wish, we should have many more such collaborative ventures in future with M/ s Electrotherm and contribute to ISRO's futuristic advanced R&D programmes.
Mr. P.A. Krishnamoorthy, VSSC-ISRO
Hereby we feel glad to have 4000 KW/ 10 Ton DTi Furnace set along with HSMC lX Caster. We have commissioned this equipments in our plant on 21st May 2018 & found performance which was committed by Electrotherm was achieved. Electrotherm's project execution was extraordinary & their process understanding & support was remarkable. Looking to the performance of other equipments of other makes running within our group, we have found performance of Electrotherm make DTi Furnace to be best.

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